Visit our new website:

Saturday, June 29, 2024

God's Eternal Purpose Unveiled by Gian Luca Morotti

Does God have a plan for uniting and reconciling Jews and Gentiles?

As confusion over the place of the Jews escalates, learn why the “mystery” revealed to Paul holds the key to one of the most volatile issues of our day. 

As Christ came on the seen there was a pre-existing “enmity” based on a “mutual dislike of each other’s customs.” But was reconciliation part of “the eternal purpose which He accomplished in Christ Jesus our Lord” (Eph. 3:11)? Morotti’s book, Called to a Holy Pilgrimage explored how the Jewish people regathered to the land of Israel according to the prophetic scriptures—while still in their unbelief. Yet according to the Amplified Version, God would “make plain [to everyone] the plan of the mystery [regarding the uniting of believing Jews and Gentiles into one body] which [until now] was kept hidden through the ages in [the mind of] God who created all things” (Ephesians 3:9).

Gian Luca exposes how “Stigmatic Theology” presents “a deformed view of the "whole counsel of God” and creates a “glaring impediment to the Almighty’s plan and purpose wrought by the blood of the cross in making the two (Jews and Gentiles) – ‘one new man – so making peace’ (Ephesians 2:15).”

Gian Luca Morotti

Gian Luca Morotti holds a degree in Security Management and a Bachelor in Biblical Studies in Hebraic Heritage. He currently serves as member of the International Board of Ebenezer Emergency Fund International (EEFI) and as chairman of Ebenezer Operation Exodus Israel. He is also a board director of the Commonwealth of Israel Foundation (COIF). 

See details at Amazon now:

Tuesday, March 26, 2024

THE BLOOD OF YOUR COVENANT — by Doug Krieger, Chair - COIF

Headline article from the Spring 2024 Commonwealth of Israel Foundation quarterly newsletter. 
Doug Krieger, Chair - COIF

It’s time for some theological clarity, commentary and devotional. There are few Messianic Scriptures from the Hebrew text which are alluded to and/or directly quoted in all four gospelsso, the passages from Zechariah 9:9-10 are altogether poignant, laced with overt prophetic fulfillment and found in Matthew 21:5; Mark 11:7, 9; Luke 19:38; John 12:15, to wit:

  Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion! Shout, O daughter of Jerusalem! Behold, your King is coming to you; He is just and having salvation, lowly and riding on a donkey, a colt, the foal of a donkey” (Zech. 9:9)

 Allow me to pause here for Messiah’s First Coming wrought us so great a SALVATIONyes, His Triumphal Entry on Nissan 10 (so-called “Palm Sunday”—which will occur this year on April 18, 2024 with Passover on April 22contrariwise, Easter will occur on March 31, 2024 with Palm Sunday on March 24, 2024). Nisan 10 matches the same date on the Hebrew Sacred Calendar as the choosing of the spotless lamb on that first Passover4 days before it was slain (Exodus 12:1-11). Moreover, it was on Nissan 10 the very day the children of Israel crossed over the Jordan River into the Good Land (Joshua 4:19) and the day when Ezekiel saw the vision of the Holy City, the Holy District as found in Ezekiel 40:1-2—viz. “. . . at the beginning of the year [religious Rosh Hashanah], on the tenth day of the month . . ...”

Nissan 10The Lamb is Chosen for Passover

Nissan 10The Children of Israel cross the Jordan River into the Good Land

Nissan 10—Ezekiel sees “in the visions of God” the Holy City – Holy District

Nissan 10Jesus' Triumphal Entry into Jerusalem as the "Lamb-King" of God Who takes away the sin of the world whereby “. . . that he (Caiaphas the High Priest) prophesied that Jesus would die for the Jewish nation ,and not only for that nation but also for the scattered children of God, to bring them together and make them one.” (John 11:51-52 NIV).  Salvation AND Unity in Messiah!

But we have left off Zechariah 9:10 where Zechariah prophesied that the Messiah:

Shall speak peace to the nations; His dominion shall be from the sea to sea, and from the River to the ends of the earth.”

This speaks of His Second Coming—for Messiah’s two-fold accomplishment initially wrought SALVATION but His “coming again in glory” will manifest in fullness His Kingdom here on earth. Furthermore, we have been far too dismissive with Zech. 9:10’s “dominion peace” Messiah brings where He declares:

I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim and the horse from Jerusalem; the battle bow shall be cut offHe shall speak peace to the nations;”

I don’t know if we have ever seen this: Ephraim’s chariot and Jerusalem/Judah’s horse will be cut off—the carnal weapons of warfare now so blatantly manifest upon the earth with “wars and rumors of warsshall be confounded Ephraim and Judah will dispense with WAR as Messiah implements His PEACE PLAN! But there is abundantly more to this amazing prophecy in Zechariah 9 . . . for we read: As for you ALSO (you see this ALSO tells us the preceding Messianic text continues) because of the BLOOD OF YOUR COVENANT I will set your prisoners free from the waterless pit. Return to the stronghold, you prisoners of hope” (vs. 11-12a).

You see, this reference to the “blood of your covenant” is directly connected to Messiah--He is the antecedent of YOUR--it is His blood, not ours! We did not make this "covenant of blood"--He made it for us.

You ask: How can that be? Because only He, through His own blood, the very “blood of the everlasting covenant” (Heb. 13:20) could ever “set your prisoners free from the waterless pit” and make them “prisoners of hope.” In context there is only One Whose blood is sufficient to set the prisoners free and make them His prisoners of Hope! Moreover, not only will He restore double to His Peoplebut “His People” is clarified when we read:

For I have bent Judah, My bow, fitted the bow with Ephraim (vs. 13) and raised up your sons, O Zion, against your sons, O Greece, and made you like the sword of a mighty man.”

Those familiar with “Commonwealth Theology” immediately recognize this prophetic fulfillment as the bringing together of both Judah (the Jewish natural branch of the One Olive Tree) and the “wild branch” (those called out from among the nations—aka, Ephraim/Gentiles) in the latter days. The “Jerusalem Council” (Acts 15:6-29) concluded by the summation of the Apostle James that what they were witnessing by the incursion of the “nations/Gentiles” into the Assembly/Congregation (aka, Ekklesia) was the raising up of the United Kingdom of David in the here and now (not future but NOW) whereby Amos 9:11-12 was being fulfilled:

On that day I will raise up the tabernacle of David, which has fallen down, and repair its damages; I will raise up its ruins, and rebuild it as in the days of old; that they may possess the remnant of Edom (i.e., the “rest of mankind”) and all the Gentiles who are called by My name,” says the LORD who does this thing.

Yes, the “fullness” of “all Israel’s restoration” will culminate the present ageand even now this is accelerating, for the day of His visitation is upon us! Christ said He would build His Ekklesiaand that is precisely what He is about doing! Zechariah’s prophecy persists:

Then the LORD will be seen over them. And His arrow will go forth like lightning. The Lord God will blow the trumpet, and go with whirlwinds from the south. The LORD of hosts will defend them; they shall devour and subdue with slingstones. They shall drink and roar as if with wine; they shall be filled with blood like basins, like the corners of the altar. The LORD their God will save them in that day, as the flock of His people. For they shall be like the jewels of a crown, lifted like a banner over His land" (vss. 14- 16).

 These prophetic adumbrations are awesome. Brethren—“the battle is the Lord’s!” Judah’s the bow and Ephraim the arrow—“His arrow will go forth like lightning!” He, the Lord God will “blow the trumpet!" Is this the “Last Trump?” It very well could bebut it is most definitely the sound of His triumphant victory over those who would assail God’s people at the close of this age. His people are being measured at the Altar (Rev. 11:1-2)and those worshipers so measured will be saved by the Lord their God in that day for they are the “one flock” of His pasture.

 Amazing, the crown of Messiah is fitted with those who have built His Kingdom with “gold, silver, and precious stones." It is this crown which will be lifted up on high as a banner to be displayedno doubt to principalities and powershow great is His mercy and love for all them who have suffered with Him for they shall reign with Him! Brethren, let us come wholly under His KingshipHis CrownHis Authority—"return to our stronghold” as His “prisoners of hope” and aspire to be doubly restored . . .

 “Oh Lord, we put down our carnal weaponry to become Your bow, your arrowyes, Judah and Ephraim . . . raise us up as the sons of Zion to be as Your mighty man as a sword in Your hand . . . send us forth as Your arrows like lightning for it is Your Trumpet that blows . . . we rest on Your promise to defend us, save us in that day as the flock of Your people . . . THE BATTLE IS THE LORD’S . . . may we be the jewels in Your crown which are lifted up as a banner to be displayed before principalities and powershow great is Your inheritance in the saints, how beautiful it isthe victory is Yours!

The summation of Zechariah’s glorious prophecy declares the “body and blood” of His Covenant with all them who call on the Name of the Lord: Grain (the bread/body) shall make the young men thrive, and new wine (the cup/blood) the young women” (vs. 17) – both young men and women shall thrive because they have been nourished by the body and blood of Messiah. And all this takes place at the end of this present age:

Ask the LORD for rain in the time of the latter rain. The LORD will make flashing clouds; He will give them showers of rain, grass in the field for everyone” (Zech. 10:1). Is this the final end-times’ harvest that He shall reap—the “grass in the field for everyone?” On that day:

I looked, and behold, a white cloud, and on the cloud sat One like the Son of Man, having on His head a golden crown, and in His hand a sharp sickle. And another angel came out of the temple, crying with a loud voice to Him who sat on the cloud, ‘Thrust in Your sickle and reap, for the time has come for You to reap, for the harvest of the earth is ripe. So He who sat on the cloud thrust in His sickle on the earth, and the earth was reaped(Rev. 14:14-16).

Far too long we have truncated Zechariah’s prophecy and have stopped at His entry into Jerusalem cir. 33 ADbut we must go on to the rest of Zechariah’s all-inclusive prophecy of what the King of kings is about doing both in bringing His people together as One and how He shall come to judge the nations with righteousness and justice for “another angel came out of the temple which is in heaven, he also having a sharp sickle” which shall reap the ungodly harvest—there will be no “middle ground” for the worthy Lamb of God will pour out His wrath on that day. But we, “the flock of His people” will together declare:

How great is its goodness and how great its beauty!” (Zech. 9:17)

This is the LANDthe Good Landour RESTour Sabbathour Deliverer! The King of kings and Lord of lords has given us such an inheritanceHe has sealed it with the “blood of Your covenant” whereby “the LORD will be seen over them!


Tuesday, December 26, 2023

Why Bible-believing Christians have a heart for Israel


EXCERPT: “FROM THE RIVER TO THE ENDS OF THE EARTH” – Zechariah 9:10b - By Doug Krieger Chair, COI Foundation

Why Bible-believing Christians have a heart for Israel
(from free Winter 2023-2024 Newsletter)
What we are advocating is an eschatological (prophetic) SEA CHANGE wherein our Catholic-Reform understanding of what constitutes Israel is void of Jews wherein the True Israel of God is constituted by adherence to One Olive Tree. Furthermore, and although well-meaning brethren among Evangelical
Dispensationalists wish the Jews well in their “separate plan” versus the Church’s plan even to the extent that there is one “wife of Jehovah” for Old Testament saints and Jews in general, and the Bride of Christ for New Testament saints, aka Christians, wherein “Jacob’s Trouble” is a “Jewish problem” and the “Valley of Dry Bones” in Ezekiel 37 is reserved for “Jews only” is flat-out theologically wrongheaded!
No, “Jacob’s Problem” is OUR MUTUAL PROBLEM and the Valley of Dry Bones—if ever Judah and Ephraim needed reviving—is just as much Ephraim’s Revival as it is Judah’s, to wit: “Son of man, these bones are the WHOLE HOUSE OF ISRAEL. They indeed say, ‘Our bones are dry, our hope is lost, and we ourselves are cut off!’ Therefore prophesy and say to them, ‘Thus says the Lord God: ‘Behold, O My people, I will open your graves and cause you to come up from your graves, and bring you into the land of Israel . . . Again, the word of the LORD came to me, saying, ‘As for you, son of man, take a stick for yourself and write on it: ‘For Judah and for the children of Israel, his companions. Then take another stick and write on it, ‘For Joseph, the stick of Ephraim, and for all the house of Israel, his companions.’ Then join them one to another for yourself into one stick, and they will become one in your hand” (Excerpts, Ezk. 37).
Folks, “David My servant shall be king over them, and they shall all have one shepherd; they shall also walk in My judgments and observe My statutes, and do then . . . My servant David shall be their prince forever. Moreover I will make a covenant of peace with them, and it shall be an everlasting covenant with them; I will establish them and multiply them, and I will set My sanctuary in their midst forevermore . . . I will be their God, and they shall be My people. The nations also will know that I, the LORD, sanctify Israel, when My sanctuary is in their midst forevermore.” (Ezk. 37:24-28).
We simply cannot sequester these passages for “Jews only” when the rest of Scripture screams aloud that the “remnant of Ephraim” is “taken out from among the nations” whereupon these “two sticks” comprise the Whole House of Israel. Yes, there’s a profound anointing within Bible-believing brethren as to why they have these “feelings” toward Israel—because the LORD is into making us ONE STICK in His hand!
—excerpt from the Commonwealth of Israel Foundation Winter 2023-2024 Newsletter. CONTINUE READING FREE HERE

Wednesday, October 11, 2023


 Oracle of Damascus 


Armageddon Campaign

By Doug Krieger

God’s prophetic forecasts cannot and should not be implicated in that the Almighty knows all things (past, present and future—because He is God); however, this does NOT prejudge blame upon his forethought/foreknowledge where even the most horrific massacres wrought by fallen humanity are known of Him.  What we are witnessing today (October, 2023) concerning the carnage taking place in Israel/Gaza and elsewhere in the Middle East, and in places like Ukraine, are fraught with man’s inhumanity toward man; notwithstanding, all deception and evil are instigated and sourced in the thoughts and fleshly pursuits of “earthlings” at the behest, convenience, and connivance of the Evil One—Satan.

            Some, like the French philosopher, Jean-Paul Sartre (an existentialist and Marxist), concluded cir. WW II, he did not believe in God’s existence but most definitely affirmed the Devil’s dastardly presence in the flesh.[i]  Indeed, there is blatant “good and evil”—all compromise with nuanced relativity and balance is extinguished as perhaps the worst massacre (certainly the most filmed due to phone cameras) in modern history was witnessed by the world near Gaza in Israel proper.

            Blaming God (determinism)[ii] for all of man’s misfortunes is nigh an incurable disease of the natural man who thrice has been “given over” by the Almighty—yielding to the corruption of humanity’s own free will, coupled with their deadened consciences, “. . . to a debased mind, to do those things which are not fitting—being filled with all unrighteousness . . . moving from heterosexual sin – then given over to homosexual sin – and “anything goes (e.g., bestiality—Romans 1:24, 26, 28).   

            Coming to grips with one’s own disobedience—acknowledging one’s predisposition to evil (i.e., “owning it”) rarely finds itself on fallen humanity’s radar.  The Devil’s modus operandi normally centers on “big picture” items (e.g., World Wars) but he needs little help to accomplish his acts of barbarism and annihilation since sin’s poison (aka, “in my flesh dwells no good thing”—Rom. 7:18) is ubiquitous among the human race.  Notwithstanding, and all the more, the Deliverer is into deliverance to all “dead in their trespasses and sin” (Eph. 2:1)—“For by grace are you saved through faith and not of yourselves, it is the gift of God, not of works, lest any man should boast” (Eph. 2:8-9).

           Fair warning:  I will spend more time on the Oracle of Damascus, the first prophetic war, due to its immediate angst afflicting the souls of men. 

            In 2004 I began an earnest pursuit to understand the prophetic Scriptures to ascertain if there could be a pattern of conflict leading up to the Second Coming of Christ and the Deliverer’s imminent intervention into human affairs in both judging those who “destroy the earth” (Rev. 11:18) and out of its ashes establishing His Millenarian Kingdom of righteousness and justice upon a renewed earth.  To that end I delved into the Scriptures and concluded that there would be three prophetic wars—the first would be the Oracle of Damascus.  I began cir. 2007 to pronounce without any evidence to the contrary that modern-day Syria (Damascus, as in Washington, D.C. stands for the USA, so Damascus stands for Syria).  I was resoundingly criticized by a caller from Damascus itself who chided me lest these biblical observations became self-fulfilling prophecies.  My advice to the caller was to “clear out of Dodge” before the proverbial fecal matter collided with the oscillating rotor!  In 2011 (12 years and 6 months to 2023/October) the so-called Syrian Civil War has left upwards of 12.5 million displaced persons and upwards of 650,000 dead.[iii] 

            Again, I am obliged to reiterate—not that the Almighty needs either my exoneration nor clarification (how presumptuous of me to utter this)—but be clear these tragedies are written for our sobriety unto righteousness, understanding in the times in which we live, and how we should be behave “as the day approaches”—See 2 Peter 3:10-18.[iv]

            This now leads us to the immediate conflict:  The Oracle or Burden of Damascus.  I will attempt to single out those passages which heretofore have NOT been fulfilled or are immediately being deliberated—giving, for what it is worth, personal evaluations and analysis.  Since my forecasts concerning this initial prophetic conflagration have not resulted in my stoning as a false prophet, but to the contrary, have proven to be wholly accurate, I think, in all humility, it may behoove you to pay attention—in spite of my humility!

             As you can decipher, the map on the Oracle of Damascus provides an immediate Middle Eastern map of those nation states surrounding modern-day Israel.  Included in the present demise of modern-day Syria (from whence this prophetic war derives its dominant name) are the nation states and their primary governmental antagonists inspiring these lands in their hatred of all things Jewish and Israeli. 

            Understand, today’s antisemitism is naught but the essence of anti-Zionism.  In other words, and not to be trifling here,  it’s O.K. to be Jewish wherever you are (at some risk now—due to the following statements) but if you are in favor of a Jewish State for whatever reason (e.g., support as America’s stalwart ally in a sea of antagonists to Israel and the USA; in sympathy for a Jewish State due to Holocaust and the murder of some 6 million Jews via Nazism’s wrath; support based on biblical views both prophetic and mandatory biblical injunctions, etc.), then you will be—if you haven’t already been—suspect and/or ostracized by the secular elites; and, in my case, deemed a “theological nut-job” bordering and/or delving into ancient Judeo-Christian heresies or at best, toying with the non-essentials of the faith going off into conjecture land and “NOT keeping the main thing, the main thing!”  My response:  SO BE IT!

            To compound my precarious standing amongst the faithful, I have assumed the role as the Chair of an obscure organization (although we’re approaching some 50,000+ followers) known as the “Commonwealth of Israel Foundation” (COIF)–forbid that Israel might be charged with another world conspiracy by claiming to have a Commonwealth, as if they’re planning on taking over the planet!  I can assure you COIF has absolutely nothing to do with such a vaunted conspiracy.

Biblical Belligerents Opposed to Israel &  an Analysis

               Now, concerning the Oracle of Damascus which for all intents and purposes appears to be culminating as we write . . . this ongoing, for nigh the past 13 years, will, I believe, usher forth in a most horrific finale given the present Hamas-Hezbollah-Israeli conflagration, let alone the present blood-soaked chaos through Syria proper. 

            The present altercation (Oct-2023) MAY terminate with Iran’s attempt to nuke Israel FROM DAMASCUS necessitating Israel's preemptive strike on Iran's proxy, Syria-Damascus which could be a nuke in and of itself.  This in Israel is known as the SAMSON-COMPLEX (in bringing the whole Temple down with it).  The primary belligerents in this conflict are Lebanon-Hezbollah; Syria, Gaza-Hamas and the Palestinian Authority (the West Bank--the Stronghold of Ephraim or Ramallah)--the constellation of these nations/tribal identities are mentioned in Zechariah 9:1-8 which directly forecasts the First and Second Comings of Messiah:  Zech 9:9-10 and residual prophetic relevance found in Zech 9:11-17; likewise, this precise end-of-days conflict is seen in Isaiah 17 wherein all the aforesaid belligerents are designated, to wit:

(1)   Damascus-Syria  (Isa. 17:1:  “The burden against Damascus. ‘Behold, Damascus will cease from being a city, and it will be a ruinous heap.’”)  Isaiah 17 does mention other opposers to Israel but first and foremost is Damascus.  Damascus is considered to be the oldest, continuously inhabited city on the face of the earth (estimates exceed 5,000 years).[v]  Zechariah 9:1-8 clearly is prophetic in nature wherein “the land of Hadrach and Damascus” (vs. 1) is delineated—Hadrach is mentioned but once in Scripture.[vi]  And “. . . against Hamath, which borders on it” (Zech. 9:2).  Hamath is today’s Hama, Syria—just to the north of Lebanon on the banks of the Orontes River.  (See also:  Isa. 17:3)

          Setting off Zechariah 9 brings us into prophetic contact with a whole series of other “players” in the Oracle of Damascus drama – but the main emphasis here is the intrusion of some of the most famous Messianic texts in the Bible:  “Rejoice greatly, O daughter of Zion!  Shout, O daughter of Jerusalem!  Behold, your King is coming to you; He is just and having salvation, lowly and riding on a donkey, a colt, the foal of a donkey.  I will cut off the chariot from Ephraim and the horse from Jerusalem; the battle bow shall be cut off.  He shall speak peace to the nations; His dominion shall be from sea to sea, and from the River to the ends of the earth” (Zech. 9:9-10; Matt. 21:5; Mark 11:7, 9; Luke 19:38; John 12:15). 

            This passage in Zechariah 9:9-10 presents the coming of Messiah and is perhaps the only messianic description presented in all four gospels.  Why?  Why are these most prevalent prophetic passages in the entire Bible immediately following the Oracle of Damascus highlighting not only the First Coming of Messiah (Zech. 9:9) but His Second Coming as well (Zech. 9:10—“His dominion shall be from sea to sea, and from the River to the ends of the earth”?  When you see the Oracle of Damascus being fulfilled—even so, the coming of Messiah!  The Coming King is intimately connected with the Oracle of Damascus—that is precisely why it has major prophetic implications!  You wish to concentrate on the Person and Work of Christ—well then, you’re staring Him right in the face!  When you cannot fathom what is going on in the Middle East right now—know this full well:  MESSIAH IS AT THE GATE—THE KING IS COMING!

(2)    Jordan:  There are literally millions of Palestinians living in modern Jordan (est. of Jordan’s present 10 million population of which some 5 million of them are considered to be Palestinians.  Jordan would like to hide this figure, but the facts are the facts—see here.)  And this is why, along with the “Stronghold of Ephraim” (the present city of Ramallah—present HQ of the Palestinian Authority and just to the north of Jerusalem (Isa. 17:3:  “The fortress also will cease from Ephraim, the kingdom from Damascus” – here the association of the Palestinian Authority with that of Damascus within the context of the “Burden against Damascus” (Isa. 17:1). 

           In particular, the Jordanian-Palestinian contrivance is witnessed in the repeated phrase:  “The cities of Aroer” (Isa. 17:2     “Aroer (Hebrew: עֲרוֹעֵר, עֲרֹעֵר) is a biblical town on the north bank of the River Arnon to the east of the Dead Sea, in present-day Jordan. The town was an ancient Moabite settlement, and is mentioned in the Bible. Aroer is identified with the modern village of 'Ara'ir in Jordan.”  (Source)

        Furthermore, today’s Jordan—i.e., those lands immediately to the east of modern-day Israel, are the ancient lands of the Edomites.  It is here that the prophecy of Obadiah comes into view:  “Oh, how Esau (which is Edom—Gen. 36:1) shall be searched out . . . Will I not in that day,” says the LORD,and understanding from the mountains of Esau?  Then your mighty men, O Teman (a warrior of Edom found in Genesis 36), shall be dismayed, to the end that everyone from the mountains of Esau may be cut off by slaughter” (Obadiah vss. 6-9, excerpts).  Likewise, in Obadiah 10-16 and again in vs. 21:  “Then saviors shall come to Mount Zion to judge the mountains of Esau, and the kingdom shall be the LORD’s.”  Edom/Jordan’s treatment of Israel will have come full circle—“For the day of the LORD upon all the nations is near; as you have done, it shall be done to you; your reprisal shall return upon your own head” (Obadiah 15). 

            Finally, it must be understood that there is likewise, in Scripture (Amos 9:12; Acts 15:17) a “remnant in Edom” or “the rest of mankind” (Acts 15:17) which is the Lord’s portion—even though Esau was “hated” yet has the Almighty included “all in disobedience that He might have mercy on all” (Romans 11:32)—this can be wholly attested to in that Obed Edom (lit. “the servant of Edom”) was “greatly blessed” having had the Ark of the Covenant in his household for 90 days (2 Sam. 6:7-11; 1 Chron. 13:13-14); furthermore, Obed-Edom (lit. “the Servant of Edom”), along with Hosah and 68 of his fellow Edomites (for a total of 70 Edomites) became Levitical priests and gatekeepers (among other service duties) in the Tabernacle of David (1 Chron. 15;18, 24-25; 16:38).  God Almighty will have the final word regarding His ministry of reconciliation between Jacob and Esau!  For today’s Esau/Edom—the “rest of mankind” are certainly alluded to both Romans 10:20 and Isaiah 65:1:  “I was found by those who did not seek Me; I was made manifest to those who did not ask for Me.”

(3) Palestinian Authority (Fatah):  The Almighty’s merciful redemption is wholly declared in (2) above concerning the “rest of mankind” or “the remnant of Edom.”  However, that caveat notwithstanding, and His love for the Palestinian people is without hypocrisy, yet they find themselves in the “stronghold of Ephraim” (Ramallah) contrary to Israel’s survival.

            It is with some hermeneutical gravitas to venture into Edom’s collaboration with the Babylonian Empire cir. 605-586 BC when the Babylonians invaded the southern kingdom of Judah.  Edom’s solemn judgment due to his favorable views of Babylon’s incursions against their distant relatives and how the Edomites actually joined with the Babylonians in desecrating the land of Judah—no wonder then that Psalm 137:7; Lam. 4:21-22; Ezek. 25:12-14 seconds the divine motion to visit them on that day that the prophecy shall be fulfilled:  “But on Mount Zion there shall be deliverance, and there shall be holiness; the house of Jacob shall possess their possessions . . . the house of Jacob shall be a fire, and the house of Joseph a flame; but the house of Esau shall be stubble; they shall kindle them and devour them, and no survivor shall remain of the house of Esau, for the LORD has spoken” (Oba. 17-18).

     (4) GAZA-HAMAS – the specificity of this antagonist to Israel is without dispute.  In ancient times this area was known to be inhabited by the Philistines (viz. Philistia); therefore, in Obadiah 19 we read of the “day of the LORD upon all the nations is near” the following:  “The South (South of the Israelites) shall possess the mountains of Esau (Jordan), and the Lowland (Israeli settlements near Gaza) shall possess Philistia (vs. 19). 

        Moreover we find it difficult to avoid Gaza when it says Gaza and surrounding turf:  “Ashkelon shall see it and fear; Gaza also shall be very sorrowful; and Ekron, for He dried up her expectation . . . a mixed race shall settle in Ashdod, and I will cut off the pride of the Philistines . . . and shall be like a leader in Judah, and Ekron like a Jebusite” (Excerpts from Zech. 9:5-7).  No, this GAZA is at the heart of the Oracle of Damascus and is clearly identified by its own names:  Gaza, Ashkelon, Ekron, Ashdod, the land of the Philistines.  What area could we be talking about?  Yes, clearly some of these ancient cities are now in Israel proper but their proximity to Israel cannot be denied to be that of ancient Philistia whose “see people” harassed not only ancient Israel but the most civilizations inhabiting the Mediterranean.  

            Today’s Hamas, now controlling the political climes of Gaza and wreaking havoc upon the aforementioned cities holding to these ancient names of the Philistines now in Israel, shall, in the Oracle of Damascus meet their come upends.

        The connection to the Oracle of Damascus can be seen in the fact “people from the foothills will possess the land of the Philistines” (viz.  Oba. 19—Gaza-Hamas) and “They will occupy the fields of Ephraim and Samaria” (Israel's ultimate annexation of the West Bank - Oba. 19) and Benjamin will possess Gilead (direct reference of Judah-Benjamin taking the East Bank/Jordan) Oba. 19 - therefore, in that so many references are made to these lands, I have concluded they are all connected to the final and first prophetic war known as the Oracle of Damascus. 

(5) Lebanon – Hezbollah:  We discover in the cardinal passages in Zechariah 9:2-4 the following:  “. . . And against Tyre and Sidon, though they are very wise.  For Tyre built herself a tower, heaped up silver like the dust, and gold like the mire of the streets.  Behold, the Lord will cast her out; He will destroy her power in the sea, and she will be devoured by fire.”   

        Yes, there are no doubt allusions to other portions of prophetic passages which decry “Tyre and Sidon” and their flirtations with the likes of Jezebel and the Prince and King of Tyre (Examples of abound with their sordid lamentations concerning Tyre:  Ezekiel Chapters 26-28).  But here in Zechariah 9:2-4 her ultimate demise, though she constructed herself an island fortress whereupon the likes of Alexander the Great found her virtually implacable until he successfully laid siege to this fortress man-made island (cir. 332 BC); yet shall Lebanon-Hezbollah meet her timely judgment in the midst of the Oracle of Damascus! “Behold, I am against you, O Sidon; I will be glorified in your midst; and they shall know that I am the LORD, when I execute judgments in her and am hallowed in her” (Ezk. 28:22). 

        Although both Hamas and Hezbollah are connected with Persia-Iran-Elam, we shall leave them until we locate them within the vortex of the Gog-Magog Conflagration.

Outcome of the Oracle of Damascus

        Now, prior to the inevitability of this prophetic war, we are to comprehend the arduous and exhaustive conflict wrought upon Israel during the “Oracle.” 

“‘In that day it shall come to pass that the glory of Jacob will wane, and the fatness of his flesh grow lean.  It shall be as when the harvester gathers the grain, and reaps the heads with his arm; it shall be as he who gathers heads of grain in the Valley of Rephaim.  Yet gleaning grapes will be left in it, like the shaking of an olive tree, two or three olives at the top of the uppermost bough, four or five in its most fruitful branches,’ says the LORD God of Israel” (Isa. 17:4-6).

        This exhaustive description does, however, have a silver lining in the preparation of the people of Judah-Israel for both the Jewish people and those defeated in this horrendous conflict:

“In that day a man will look to his Maker, and his eyes will have respect for the Holy One of Israel.  He will not look to the altars, the work of his hands; he will not respect what his fingers have made, nor the wooden images nor the incense altars.  In that day his strong cities will be as a forsaken bough and an uppermost branch, which they left because of the children of Israel; and there will be desolation.  Because you have forgotten the God of your salvation, and have not been mindful of the Rock of your stronghold, therefore you will plant pleasant plants and set out foreign seedlings; in the day you will make your plant to grow, and in the morning you will make your seed to flourish; but the harvest will be a heap of ruins in the day of grief and desperate sorrow.  Woe to the multitude of many people (perhaps alluding the commencement of the Gog-Magog Conflagration?) who make a noise like the roar of the seas, and to the rushing of nations that make a rushing like the rushing of mighty waters!  The nations will rush like the rushing of many waters; but God will rebuke them and they will flee far away, and be chased like the chaff of the mountains before the wind, like the rolling thing before the whirlwind.  Then behold, at eventide, trouble!  And before the morning, he is no more.  This is the portion of those who plunder us, and the lot of those who rob us” (Isaiah 17:7-14).

        I’ve included this entire portion because the magnitude of this prophetic description has never occurred—it is yet to be the outcome of the Oracle of Damascus for both the Jewish State and the nations immediately surrounding her. 

        Though victorious, the State of Israel though on the one hand, they shall turn to their Maker, but on the other hand, they will be sorely pressed to find allies—and they shall most definitely find them—for the ensuing prophetic war which commences, I believe, the infamous Seventieth Week of Israel—the final “seven years.”

The Second Prophetic War – GOG-MAGOG

                Likewise, and as we shall observe, the previous enumeration of foes mentioned in the Burden of Damascus are nowhere to be found in the Gog-Magog scenario—why?  Because they have been eliminated but Israel, though indefatigable, is, nevertheless, exceedingly weakened as a result of the conflict making them vulnerable for outside assistance; and, although she may have received such military prowess from the USA and others (propaganda-wise); this time her foes and allies will be much more numerous, rapacious, lethal, cunning, and outraged!

    The Antichrist will appear on the scene—but not know his ultimate identity as THE BEAST until the “middle of the week” when War in Heaven will result in Satan and his angelic hosts shall be delimited from the Third Heaven and cast to the earth whereupon he will as he did with Judas Iscariot, enter into the body of the Antichrist and occupy his temple and thenceforth he shall be entitled THE BEAST without redemption and designated as the Lawless One, the Man of Sin, and the Son of Perdition-Destruction . . . whereupon he shall commence his 1,290-days of desolation only to “come to his end” wherein no one will assist him! 

    And, yes, he will be designated as the Leader, the Willful King of the Merchants of the Earth, and no doubt the captain of their salvation all in the name of democratic freedom and preservation of civilization . . . ridding the earth of Islamic Jihad and furthering his efforts in seemingly protecting “our rights” and those of Israel—able to deceive even the very elect (Matt. 24).  I would strongly suggest, although it is not the verbosity of this tome, that those anticipating deliverance from the wrath of Satan, should be forewarned—better be prepared to give the Testimony of Jesus and overcome the categorizer of the brethren by “the blood of the Lamb and the word of their testimony, and love not your life unto the death” (Rev. 12:10).

    I think by 2025 AD there is a likelihood that the first stage of the Gog-Magog Conflagration will take place, as I have said, during the first 40 days of the final week (Passover/Spring being the optimum time), known as Daniel's 70th Week in spite of those eschatological conclusions which suggest that the entire Week of Daniel (Dan. 9:24-27) has already been fulfilled.  No, there are specifically 3 separate Abominations of Desolation, to wit: 

(1) cir. 168 BC - during the Maccabean Revolt wherein Antiochus IV Epiphanes attempted to Hellenize the Jews and desecrated the 2nd Temple--whereupon we now celebrate the Feast of Dedication and victory over the prototype of the future Antichrist! 

(2) The destruction of the Herodian Temple in 70 AD by Titus of Rome whereupon the believers in Yeshua fled to the mountains; and . . .

(3) The future Abomination of Desolation in the incarnation of Satan as he entered Judas Iscariot to commit the dastardly deed; even so, Satan as a spirit shall entered into the temple/body of the Antichrist in the “middle of the week” whereupon the Antichrist shall be thereafter designated THE BEAST without the possibility of redemption--the SON OF PERDITION (Jo. 17; 2 Thess. 2; and Rev. 17-19).  Now . . .

    The antagonists against Israel are wholly designated in Ezekiel 38 and also in Daniel 11 to be:

(1)  Spiritual entities - Gog (that majestic principality wholly aligned with Satan both now and after the 1,000-year Millennial Reign of the Son of David, Jesus Christ (Ezk. 38-39 and Rev. 20:7-10).  “Magog” simply means those “spiritual forces” aligned with Gog - duly noted that Gog is the “chief prince” over Meshech and Tubal[vii] (Ezk. 38:2-3)—these two “spiritual entities” could be jurisdictions and/or the very “rulers of darkness” directly under Gog's immediate authority—for Gog is the “chief prince of Meshech and Tubal” (Ezk. 38:3) . . . . but aligned and/or under the spiritual leadership of the AC’s Kingdom of Darkness—a kingdom, which I hasten to add, is DIVIDED in that Satan would that all the peoples of the earth be destroyed, then would his goal be achieved that man, redeemed by Christ, will indeed crush Satan's head—will be the following earthly—terrestrial entities aligned, of course, against Israel but also Israel’s allies (which I will likewise discuss) . . . but one more thing:  It is absolutely ludicrous that Meshech stands for Moscow and Tubal stands for Tobolsk (former Capital of Siberia, Russia)—these are NOT terrestrial entities but spiritual entities and these tribal designations so-called have absolutely nothing to do with Russia.

(2)  The nations of earth aligned against Israel:

(a)  Ezk. 38:5 - Persia - obviously, Modern-Day IRAN/ELAM

(b)  Ezk. 38:5 - Cush - Not African Cush-Ethiopia but those lands between the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers - i.e., the Levant or modern-day upper Iraq, Eastern Turkey and sadly modern-day Kurdistan.

(c)  Ezk. 38:5 - Put - aka Libya and/or the northern tier of North African states which have Muslim majorities

(d)  Ezk. 38:6 - Gomer and the house (Beth) of Togarmah - this is NOT the Germanic peoples but wholly modern-day Turkey.  

    NOTE:  The KING OF THE NORTH (Dan. 11:40) and the KING OF THE SOUTH (Dan. 11:40) are comprised of the aforesaid nations mentioned above (a-d) with, specifically, the war mentioned in Daniel 11:40-45 is constituted by a pincer movement of nations against Israel coming from (a) the King of the North comprised of the Libyans or the South - northern tier of Islamic African states; and the Cushites or King of the North - i.e., ancient Cush, again those nations states within the geographic boundaries and adjacent to the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers - however, a third major player is engaged against Israel:  EGYPT (Dan. 11:43) - Egypt (the Muslim Brotherhood) will turn on Israel (this time—in spite of their so-called Peace Agreement with Israel).  By this time Jordan will have been dispensed with - Edom, Moab and Ammon “will be delivered from his hand” and NOT be aligned with the Kings of the North and South - also the Libyans and Cushites (Dan. 11:43) which are composed of all the North African States (Libya according to the Greek historian Herodotus comprised all the lands west of Egypt in North Africa) and, again, the ancient Cushites of the King of the North, aka, the Levant—but what of Israel’s allies against the belligerents found in Ezk. 38 and Daniel 11?

    In Ezekiel the main attack of Gog-Magog and their terrestrial entities will be against ISRAEL but in Daniel 11 the main attack will be against the Willful King/The Antichrist of Daniel 11:36-39.  It clearly appears that this “king will do as he pleases . . . he will exalt and magnify himself above every god and will say unheard-of things against the God of gods” will appear to have allied himself with Israel—as Israel's protector in that many of the same allies of Israel are aligned with this devious willful King—THE ANTICHRIST!  

    In Ezekiel 38 the allies of Israel ipso facto the allies of the Antichrist/Willful King of Daniel 11 are as follows:

(a) Sheba and Dedan - these are the ancient tribal designations of the peoples of the Saudi Arabian Peninsula and of the Arab Gulf States - Ezk. 38:13.

(b) “The Ships or Merchants of Tarshish” Ezk. 38:13 - The Leadership of the Western Trading Nations as seen in the ancient commercial empire of the Phoenicians who moved every WESTWARD in establishing their commercial empire—even unto the Americas but most definitely throughout the entire Mediterranean and could readily be seen to be part and parcel of the ancient Greco-Roman Empire and her reflection in the United States of America (sadly so).  

 These allies of Israel are primarily interested in the COMMERCIAL aspects of the Gog-Magog War in that they inquire of Gog-Magog:  “Have you come to plunder?  Have you gathered your hordes to loot, to carry off silver and gold, to take away livestock and goods and to seize much plunder,” etc. (Ezk. 38:13+).

    NOTE:  There is some indication that Jeremiah 49:23-27 alludes to the ORACLE OF DAMASCUS; and that Jeremiah 49:28-39 alludes to BOTH the nation states of the Levant and specifically to ELAM or the ancient designation (one of them) for Persia--therefore, connected to the Gog-Magog Conflagration.  

    NOTE:  Psalm 83 has been prophetically bantered about in that the ancient peoples of Edom/Ishmaelites (vs. 5) aka Arabs in that Moab and Hagrites, Byblos, Ammon Amalek, Philistia are likewise mentioned (therefore, Hamas-Gaza, Jordan); likewise, Tyre (Lebanon-Hezbollah) and Assyria (ancient Cush); also, “Oreb and Zeeb” were two leaders opposed to the Ephramites and could be considered within the modern-day territories of the so-called West Bank—again, most of the entities mentioned in Psalm 83 would be connected to the enemies of Israel within the cluster of nation states included in the Oracle of Damascus.  

      The end result of the Gog-Magog War will be two-fold:  Gog-Magog’s terrestrial entities known as these aforesaid nation states and as the Kings of the North and South will be SOUNDLY defeated by the forces of the Antichrist – the constellation of Western Trading Nations with their Saudi and Israeli allies will be completely triumphant which will IMMEDIATELY lead to the third and final conflagration known as the: 


         This is the third and final prophetic war which is clearly delineated, among other passages, in:

      (1)  Daniel 11:44-45:  “But reports from the east and the north will alarm him (i.e., the ANTICHRIST—WILLFUL KING) and he will set out in a great rage to destroy and annihilate many”—again, the prototype of the Antichrist was Antiochus IV Epiphanes (lit. “God is manifest” but he was called Epimanes or the “Madman” by his enemies) - he did as well “come to his end” by leaving the immediate environs of Israel to both rumors in the east and north and came to his demise there.  However, the future AC will attempt to “finish off” the KINGS OF THE EAST—China and the rumors from the north (far north in that the King of the North has already been defeated) and know this, this “north” is probably Russia. 


This third and final conflict is launched from the AC’s new “base of operations” which are clearly stated:  “He will pitch his royal tents between the seas at the beautiful holy mountain” - I affirm this to be the Mediterranean Sea and either the Dead Sea or Persian Gulf but definitely upon the “holy mountain” which would be modern-day Israel.  Having defeated the King of the North and the King of the South—something of his “original base” may have been severely damaged—therefore, he finds himself within the nexus of the Middle East where his HQ is established and from here he will go out and destroy many!


(2)  Ezekiel 39:17-29 and Revelation 19:11-21—Both these passages bespeak of the same and final conflagration and culminate in the Second Coming of Christ - aka “My Sacrificial Feast/Meal” (Ezk. 39:17) and “The Great Supper of God (Rev. 19:17).  These two portions present amazing comparisons and should be viewed as similar conflicts related to the Second Coming of Christ and the entry of the Armies of Heaven.

    There are scores of passages consummate this nigh 7-years of WORLD WAR III in the Valley of Josaphat adjacent to the east of Jerusalem; therefore, well does Joel 3 (entire chapter) delineate this ultimate and final effort of the Beast vs. the King of kings.

    Whereupon there is NO CONTEST and the Beast and the Second Beast are thrown into the pit (Rev. 19:20); and God’s people are utterly vindicated.  Likewise, there appears to be a final call to repentance as we hear:  “Multitudes, multitudes in the valley of decision!   For the day of the LORD is near in the valley of decision” (Joel 3:14).   

    Could it be that scores, multitudes, will decide to call upon the Name of the Lord at this juncture?  Zechariah’s final chapters seem to indicate that the nations of the world who will attack Jerusalem in the latter days as the Armageddon Campaign culminates in the Beautiful Land will have a final window of repentance (See Zechariah 12-14).  The finale of all these conflicts shall result in the establishment of the Millennium Kingdom of the Son of David (Ezk. 37; 40-48; Zech 14: 16-21; Rev. 11:13-18; 20:1-7a).

    The imperative of the hour is the preparation of our hearts and lives in accordance with the injunction given by Peter in his Second Epistle:

8 But do not forget this one thing, dear friends: With the Lord a day is like a thousand years, and a thousand years are like a day. 9 The Lord is not slow in keeping his promise, as some understand slowness. Instead he is patient with you, not wanting anyone to perish, but everyone to come to repentance. 
10 But the day of the Lord will come like a thief. The heavens will disappear with a roar; the elements will be destroyed by fire, and the earth and everything done in it will be laid bare.   
11 Since everything will be destroyed in this way, what kind of people ought you to be? You ought to live holy and godly lives 12 as you look forward to the day of God and speed its coming. That day will bring about the destruction of the heavens by fire, and the elements will melt in the heat. 13 But in keeping with his promise we are looking forward to a new heaven and a new earth, where righteousness dwells. 
14 So then, dear friends, since you are looking forward to this, make every effort to be found spotless, blameless and at peace with him. 15 Bear in mind that our Lord’s patience means salvation, just as our dear brother Paul also wrote you with the wisdom that God gave him. 16 He writes the same way in all his letters, speaking in them of these matters. His letters contain some things that are hard to understand, which ignorant and unstable people distort, as they do the other Scriptures, to their own destruction.
17 Therefore, dear friends, since you have been forewarned, be on your guard so that you may not be carried away by the error of the lawless and fall from your secure position. 18 But grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To him be glory both now and forever! Amen. (2 Peter 3:8-18)

Yours in the Coming of the King of kings - Doug Krieger

[i] The famous quote of Sartre is stated as:  “I do not believe in God; his existence has been disproved by Science. But in the concentration camp, I learned to believe in men.”  Satre’s affirmations concerning evil wrought by the Holocaust and his persistence in acclaiming atheism was, interestingly enough, assuaged as he approached his own mortality—i.e., he apparently had a gradual change of heart with conviction so much so that his Sartreans (those most devoted to his philosophy and causes) were greatly dismayed—please find the reflections of perhaps the world’s foremost atheist and his comments on God at the close of his life @ The Scandalous Conversion of Jean-Paul Sartre.

[ii] In response to an inquiry on this topic I sought to disclose a finite history on major heresies afflicting the Ekklesia on the development of this theme, to wit:

The "enemy of our souls" from the commencement of the Ekklesia sought to ingrain the heresy of "determinism" into our doctrinal understanding wherein blaming God for our own evil proclivities was a spiritual fait accompli--viz., it is not "the devil made me do it" - nor "my flesh made me do it" - BUT God put me into this fix so HE MADE ME DO IT!  The action corollaries from this fallen understanding provided nourishment to Gnosticism's rise and subsequent lawlessness (antinomianism--e.g., the God of the Old Testament [law] is not the God of the New Testament [love/grace] - but more so, to the fatalism of a predestination gone rogue.  The sequence leading to this heretical pattern commenced, quite frankly, from (1) Simon Magus (Acts 7:9-24) who sought to put a price on the baptism of the Holy Spirit--who was found in Rome herself and acclaimed to be a god by Pagan Rome; founding his own priesthood--truly a "lawless man" (see my article here:  SHOW ME THE POWER--Parts 1 and 2) - Simon Magus moved to Rome cir. 45 AD--a most devious character; (2) Marcion of Sinope who deprecated the Hebrew Scriptures and could readily be at the ROOT-SOURCE of modern-day Dispensationalism but was declared a heretic by the Church in Rome by 144 AD; (3) Mani (the Prophet) or Manichaeism [cir. 270 AD] integrated Christianity, Zoroastrianism and Buddhism altogether - had a PROFOUND IMPACT on St. Augustine (354-430 AD) prior to his conversion to Christianity - but Augustine was greatly impacted by Mani and integrated many of his teachings, customizing them into his theology - and fast forward, it was the so-called Reformer, Calvin, who was greatly influenced by St. Augustine.  Calvin quotes him directly nigh 300 times in his writings--for it was the "determinism" of St. Augustine which so greatly influenced Calvin and radical predestination (See:  Calvin and Determinism - a moderate view).

[iii] According to the United Nations, the Syrian Civil War has resulted in the deaths of at least 350,209 people as of September 2021 1However, estimates of the total number of deaths in the Syrian Civil War by opposition activist groups vary between 503,064 and about 613,407 as of March 2023 2The UN report also cautioned that the figure was “certainly an under-count” that specified only a “minimum verifiable number” 1. The conflict has also resulted in a large number of internally displaced people and refugees. As of March 2023, there were approximately 6.5 million refugees and 6 million internally displaced people 2The Syrian Civil War has been characterized by numerous human rights violations, massacres, and rape 2The conflict has also led to the prosecution of war criminals 2. (NOTE:  Most of the “numbered” items are “hot links” – Source here.

[iv]“But the day of the Lord will come as a thief in the night, in which the heavens will pass away with a great noise, and the elements will melt with fervent heat; both the earth and the works that are in it will be burned up. Therefore, since all these things will be dissolved, what manner of persons ought you to be in holy conduct and godliness, looking for and hastening the coming of the day of God, because of which the heavens will be dissolved, being on fire, and the elements will melt with fervent heat? Nevertheless we, according to His promise, look for new heavens and a new earth in which righteousness dwells. Therefore, beloved, looking forward to these things, be diligent to be found by Him in peace, without spot and blameless; and consider that the longsuffering of our Lord is salvation—as also our beloved brother Paul, according to the wisdom given to him, has written to you, as also in all his epistles, speaking in them of these things, in which are some things hard to understand, which untaught and unstable people twist to their own destruction, as they do also the rest of the Scriptures. You therefore, beloved, since you know this beforehand, beware lest you also fall from your own steadfastness, being led away with the error of the wicked; but grow in the grace and knowledge of our Lord and Savior Jesus Christ. To Him be the glory both now and forever. Amen” (2 Peter 3:10-18—NKJV). 

[v] Interesting video captures just how ancient Damascus is.

[vi] Hadrach is a biblical name that denotes a place, a king, or a deity revered on the boundaries of Damascus. It is only mentioned once in the Bible: Zechariah 9:1. It is generally thought to have been north of Lebanon 1According to 2, Hadrach has been identified with the Assyrian place-name Hatarikka, or Aramean Hazrik, possibly located at Tell Afis. The location of the city Hadrach, however, is disputed; it is most likely Kharake, near Mu’arat e-Nu’aman 2.  (Source

[vii] Easton's Bible Dictionary - Tubal

(1)   The fifth son of Japheth (Genesis 10:2).

(2) A nation, probably descended from the son of Japheth. It is mentioned by (Isaiah 66:19), along with Javan, and by (Ezekiel 27:13), along with Meshech, among the traders with Tyre, also among the confederates of Gog (Ezekiel 38:2 Ezekiel 38:3 ; 39:1), and with Meshech among the nations which were to be destroyed (32:26). This nation was probably the Tiberini of the Greek historian Herodotus, a people of the Asiatic highland west of the Upper Euphrates, the southern range of the Caucasus, on the east of the Black Sea.

Read Summary of "The Oracle of Damascus" and other articles in our Fall 2023 Newsletter here: